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About Diabetes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[2] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[3] Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.[4] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[3]

Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[5] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:

  • Type 1 DM results from the pancreas’ failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”. The cause is unknown.[3]
  • Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[3] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[6] This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.[3]
  • Gestational diabetes, is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood sugar level.[3]

Prevention and treatment involve a healthy diet, physical exercise, not using tobacco and being a normal body weight. Blood pressure control and proper foot care are also important for people with the disease. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.[3] Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin.[7] Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.[8] Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.[9] Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.[10]

As of 2014, an estimated 387 million people have diabetes worldwide,[11] with type 2 diabetes making up about 90% of the cases.[12][13] This represents 8.3% of the adult population,[13] with equal rates in both women and men.[14] From 2012 to 2014, diabetes is estimated to have resulted in 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths each year.[7][11] Diabetes at least doubles a person’s risk of death.[3] The number of people with diabetes is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035.[11] The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be $612 billion USD.[15] In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012.[16]

Full Article here – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus

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